The place of East Garo Hills was emerged as a separate district on 28th August, 1976, after the earlier Garo Hills district of Meghalaya was re-organised in order to bring the administration closer to the people. Then the district headquarters-complex declared in the Williamnagar town and the town was named after the Captain Williamson A. Sangma, the founder Chief Minister of the State of Meghalaya. Williamnagar is situated on the vast plain lands along the bank of the Simsang River, at Simsanggre. These plain lands are historically significant areas because the Garos made their last major resistance to the British intrusion into Garo Hills during the year 1837. The legendary Garo leader called Pa Togan Nengminja Sangma was felled by the British, in skirmish on 12th December, 1837, at the place of Chisobibra located near to the Wiliamnagar.
Geographically, the district has a total area of 2,603 sq. km. and occupies the rank 5th in State and 426th in India on the basis of the size. It lies at 25076' N latitude, 90068' E longitude and 600 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total forest area of 87.90% out of the total geographical area. It is surrounded by Assam in the North, West Garo Hills District in the South, West Khasi Hills District in the East and West Garo Hills District in the West. The main rivers that flow through the district are Damring, Simsang, Manda, Ildek, Didram and Damring. The climate of the district remains pleasant almost throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 2493.1 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 5 blocks namely Dambo Rongjeng, Kharkutta, Resubelpara, Samanda and Songsak. It has total 2 towns and 1,110 villages. There are 3 assembly constituencies of the Meghalaya State Legislative Assembly within the East Garo Hills district and they are Songsak (ST), Rongjeng (ST) and Williamnagar (ST). English is its official language. Its district code is 294. The district came into existence on 28th August, 1976 with its administrative headquarters located at Williamnagar, situated at a distance of 237 kms from the state capital.
Demographically, according to the 2011 census, the district has a total number of 57,357 households with a total population of 3,17,917 comprising 1,61,223 are males and 1,56,694 are females which causing it to rank 5th in the state and 568 in India. The density of population of the district is 122 (persons per sq km.). The sex ratio is pegged at 972 (females per 1000 males) while the child ratio stands at 980 (females per 1000 males). The population growth rate during the period 2001 to 2011 was 26.87% including 26.48% were males and 27.28% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Christian with 91.13% of the total population. According to 2001 census the principal language in the district is Garo with 93.74%.
Economically, the district is dependent on agriculture primarily. The GDDP or Gross District Domestic Product during the period 2007-08 was Rs. 57,516 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 41,855 lakh at Constant Prices during the period 1999-2000. The NDDP or Net District Domestic Product during the period 2007-08 was Rs. 51,132 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 37,821 lakh at Constant Prices during the period 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, at factor cost during the period 2007-08 was Rs. 18,771 at Current Price and Rs. 2,724 at Constant Prices during the period 1999-2000. Rubber, coffee, tea, cashew, yam, maize, jackfruit, chilies, ginger, turmeric, bay leaves are the main agricultural products grown here. Dairy farming, weaving, sericulture, basket making, bamboo working, carpentry, mining are the primary industrial products of the district. The district is rich in natural resources since it has huge deposits of coal, limestone, clay, etc.
Education wise, according to 2011 census, the literacy rate is 73.95% out of which 77.72% are males and 70.05% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 1,92,147 including 1,02,513 are males and 89,634 are females. The total number of illiterates in the district is 1,25,770 including 58,710 are males and 67,060 are females. District Institute of education and Training-DIET, Mendipathar College, Ramsang College, Williamnagar Government College, Don Bosco High School Mendal, Holy Family High School, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Paschal M.E. School, Sacred Heart High School, Sobhana High School, St. Francis Me School, St. Francis Xavier’s M.E. School, St. Joseph’s M. E. School and St. Paul’s Lower Primary School are some of the main educational institutions in the district.
The district has some famous and beautiful tourist places to visit. These places are Ta'sek Lake and Rong’Bang Falls. A number of students from worldwide visit here to every year. Rong’bang falls or Rong’bang dare is located on the Tura Williamnagar. It is famous for its natural beauty. The Ta'sek Lake is also called as Ta'sek Wari by locals. It is the result of earth quake in 1897. It is drained by the river Damring. It is one of the popular tourist spots in the district.